How is infertility examined and treated in women?

The method of infertility testing has changed significantly in the previous decades, and the main cause is the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART), primarily intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Fertility tests include:
• General gynecological examination;
• Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUZ), primarily measuring the growth of follicles (folliculometry) but also 3D TVUZ which detects uterine anomalies as a causative factor;
• Bacteriological analyzes;
• Examination of the patency of the fallopian tubes (sonohisterosalpingography-SHSG or hysterospalpingography HSG);
• Laparoscopy;
• Hysteroscopy.

In most cases, ovulation stimulation is used as a regular procedure in the treatment of either female or male sterility, which increases the rate of pregnancies, regardless of the type of artificial reproductive technologies being used (intrauterine insemination or IVF).

One of the unavoidable gynecological examinations at the Novakovic Polyclinic as part of the treatment of sterility is folliculometry – an ultrasound examination which examines and monitors the progress of follicle growth on the ovary and the maturation of the uterine mucosa. It can be done in the natural cycle in order to determine the ideal moment for a fertile intercourse, preparation for insemination or as an integral part of in vitro fertilization as part of monitoring ovulation stimulation.

Ovulation can be confirmed on folliculometry and it can be assessed when it is best to have intercourse in combination with the determination of hormonal status (estradiol and LH).