At the Novakovic Polyclinic, we perform surgical removal of all types of skin changes and changes in the subcutaneous tissue. These interventions are most often performed under local anesthesia and do not require hospitalization. All removed preparations are sent for histopathological analysis. Depending on thethe body area from which the change was removed, the stitches are removed within 7 to 14 days.
Skin tumors are divided into malignant (cancerous) and benign (noncancerous).
The most common malignant skin tumors are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.
Basal cell carcinoma:
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer in humans, but is still responsible for only 0.1% of cancer-related deaths. It most often appears on the skin that is exposed to the sun. It grows slowly but, it does not form metastasis. It destroys and infiltrates the surrounding tissue and organs. In most cases, basal cell carcinoma is located on the head, and somewhat less often on the trunk and extremities. It most often manifests itself in the form of a wound that does not heal.
Squamous cell carcinoma:
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is a malignant disease that occurs four times less often than basal cell carcinoma. The most affected population are people over the age of 50, and men are three times more likely to get sick. It occurs in people of lighter skin, who have been exposed to the sun for a long time. More than 75% of squamous cell carcinoma is localized on the head and neck.
In the later stages, squamous cell carcinoma develops a malignant course with aggressive characteristics, causing local destruction and lymph metastases.
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of skin pigment cells. It is the most common skin disease that can lead to death. The most important factor for the development of melanoma is ultraviolet radiation (sunbathing). An important factor is pigmentation, that is skin type. In type I (people with light white skin color, greenish eyes, reddish hair – the so called Celtic type) the risk is greatest, followed by type II (light skin color, blue eyes, blond hair). Prevention of melanoma involves early detection of melanoma by skin self-examination and dermoscopy.
The definitive diagnosis of melanoma is made only by histopathological analysis, which is preceded by surgical removal of the suspected pigmentary change.
Persons who belong to the risk group and who should go for regular dermatology check-up are people with:
Benign skin tumors:
Benign include: juveniles (nevi), papillomas, keratosis and dermatofibroma. Benign skin tumors are common skin changes. They are generally not a problem for the patient, except for aesthetic reasons. They are characterized by slow growth.
Mole is a benign change in the skin and mucous membranes that can be of different colors, shapes and sizes. They should not be removed, except in the case of unsuitable localization at the site of permanent irritation (laundry, clothing, jewelry) or for aesthetic reasons, and should be periodically examined and full attention paid to growth, color, shape and side effects such as itching, dandruff or bleeding. They are removed by surgical excision, and the final diagnosis is histopathologically verified.
Papilloma is a benign change in the epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes of viral origin. It is most often found on the neck, upper arms, armpits, under the breasts, on the abdomen and groin. It is of various shapes, often stalked, elastic and usually skin-colored. It is removed by radiofrequency or minor surgical excision.
Keratosis is a flat skin change of yellowish color, of different sizes, usually localized on exposed parts of the body – face, neck, décolleté, arms and back. It does not appear on the palms and soles. Over time, it grows and acquires a dark, even black color.
Dermatofibroma manifests on the skin as a single or multiple, hard or painless nodule. It occurs in adults, on the extremities, and sometimes on other parts of the body. It is reddish or yellowish-brown in color, ranging in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. It is removed by surgical excision.
Subcutaneous tissue tumors
The most common tumors of the subcutaneous tissue are: lipomas (benign tumors of adipose tissue), atheromas (encapsulated contents of a clogged sebaceous gland).
Lipoma is a benign tumor of adipose tissue that usually occurs in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck, back, shoulders, and abdominal wall. It is small in size, although sometimes it reaches gigantic proportions. Lipoma is a soft, elastic nodule that is not always well bounded by the surrounding tissue, and is covered with skin of unaltered appearance. It must be carefully removed in its entirety, because any remnants of this tumor can be the cause of its reappearance.
Atheroma is a change in the skin that is a clogged sebaceous gland that has grown on the skin. It most often occurs on the face, head, earlobes, neck and back. An infection with signs of pus may develop. It must be removed completely, otherwise it may reappear.